Name that Invasive!

Autumn olive

This was the title of a question posted on our Discussion Board several weeks ago. Here is the post:

Autumn olive

Autumn olive in fall

What is the name of the invasive species of small bush/tree with thousands of little red berries, and is spreading like kudzu? It grows two or three inches a day seems like, and is dominating every hedge row in my area. I live near Stuart, Virginia. What is the best way to eradicate them?

My guess was autumn olive but I asked for some additional information to be sure of the identification:

The silvery undersides of the autumn olive leaves

The silvery undersides and
alternate arrangement of 
autumn olive leaves

Are the undersides of the leaves silvery in color and are the leaves arranged alternately on the branches? If the leaves are arranged opposite each other on the branches and the leaves are green, then it would be a bush honeysuckle. In either case, they are both invasive and hard to control.

He replied back that the leaves were silvery underneath and they were arranged in an alternate pattern on the stem.

Autumn Olive – as I suspected.

Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) is a deciduous shrub that is native to China, Japan, and Korea. It was introduced to the United States in 1830 as a fast growing shrub that could be used to quickly revegetate disturbed areas and provide erosion control as well as habitat and food for wildlife. It certainly did the job but unfortunately did it so well that the shrub has now become invasive in much of the eastern and central US.

Pale yellow autumn olive flowers

Pale yellow autumn olive flowers

Autumn olive is very prolific and is as happy growing on dry, rocky, infertile slopes as it is growing in rich garden soil. It is drought tolerant, salt tolerant, and even grows in very acidic soil.

This is one tough plant!

One of the reasons that autumn olive is able to thrive in nutrient-poor soils is its ability to produce its own nitrogen with nitrogen-fixing root nodules. This can become a problem for many of the native species that are adapted to areas with infertile soil because it interferes with the natural nutrient cycle.

In addition, because of its vigorous growth and quick spreading habit, autumn olive can easily outcompete and displace these native plants.

Autumn olive laden with fruit

Autumn olive laden with fruit

The other problem is that these shrubs produce a tremendous number of small red fruits all along their branches and each of these contains a seed. Birds and other animals apparently scarf up the fruit and are responsible for dispersing the seeds far and wide!

Autumn olive fruit contains a lot of lycopene and is apparently quite tasty when it is perfectly ripe. Before that time, it has a very bitter taste due to high levels of tannin – similar to unripe persimmon fruit. The few that I tried the other day, though deep red in color, really made me pucker up! Definitely not ripe yet! The tannin content decreases as the fruit ripens and it becomes sweeter. If you look online, you can find quite a few recipes which use autumn olive fruit to make jam, juice, and other things!


These shrubs ARE invasive and efforts should be made to control them. However, this is no easy task! If you cut them down or burn them, they quickly sprout vigorous new growth from the base. Seedlings pop up everywhere the fruit/seeds drop.

Deep red fruit is speckled with silvery scales

The deep red fruit of autumn olive is
speckled with silvery scales

Seedlings can be hand pulled but it is best to do this when the ground is moist so you increase the chances of removing the entire root.

Seedlings and young shrubs can be controlled by spraying the foliage with triclopyr (found in many brush killers) or glyphosate (the active ingredient in Roundup) according to the label directions.

Large, mature shrubs are harder to kill. One of the best methods is to cut them down and then immediately apply an herbicide containing glyphosate or triclopyr directly to the freshly cut stump according to the label directions for stump treatment. You can use a paint brush or a spray bottle to apply the herbicide and if you add a dye to the mix, you can easily see when you have good coverage on the stump.

One of the best times to do this is in the early fall before the fruit (with seeds!) matures. At this time, the plants are beginning to prepare for winter by moving nutrients and stored starches from their leaves into their roots. Spraying systemic herbicides at this time (for any perennial weed) means that these chemicals get transported down to the roots more quickly thereby increasing their efficacy.

Good luck if you have this stuff! It is growing in dense thickets around our little orchard and every year it seems to close in a bit more!

Until next time – Happy Gardening!

Corn crop destroyed by critters

We have had more trouble with critters enjoying our garden this year than ever before!

It is being a challenge to say the least.

End of June - pre-woodchucks

End of June – pre-woodchucks

Healthy pole beans and sweet potato vines

Healthy pole beans and sweet potatoes

It started back in the spring when cucumber beetles infected many of my small cucumber plants with bacterial wilt. I lost probably 50 percent of my original crop before I realized what the problem was and sprayed the plants with Bonide Eight. I had to reseed and also buy some plants to replace the ones that were lost. I kept on top of them after that and ended up with a great crop of cucumbers until disease finally destroyed the vines in mid August. At least I was able to enjoy lots of delicious cucumbers and make lots of pickles!

Most of the lower leaves were eaten

Most of the lower leaves were eaten

Woodchucks have been the worst problem this year. Despite the fence and wildlife netting we have around the garden, somehow at least one managed to get in. We first noticed it when all the leaves of our sweet potato vines were chewed off. Then the lower leaves of the pole beans began to disappear! At least it didn’t bite off the growing tip of the bean vine and they continued to climb up the poles. The plants were just leafless at the bottom.

We searched the perimeter of the garden and found a spot or two where it looked like some critter might have been getting under the fence. In those areas, we took some old fencing, bent it at a right angle, and pinned it down so that it extended about 2 feet out along the ground on the outside of the main fence. We hoped that would do the trick.

The beans had begun to recover by the time I took this photo

The beans had begun to recover
by the time I took this photo

After that, all was well for a while … until one day when Eric noticed that the leaves along the top of the bean trellis were being eaten! Our bean trellis is sort of like a pergola made out of bamboo poles. There are two rows of 8 uprights and then bamboo cross pieces join the two rows along the top. This allows the vines to grow between the poles at a manageable height (once they reach to top of the poles) so that I can easily reach the beans to pick.

It’s a great system but we were baffled as to how the foliage at the top was being eaten! Certainly if a woodchuck tried to climb the poles to get at the top leaves, they would have knocked the poles over or at a minimum torn down many of the vines in the process. Plus, I don’t think the cross pieces could support even the weight of a small woodchuck. Yet the leaves were chewed right off!

The only critter we could think of that might be able (and willing) to do this was a squirrel. Squirrels have been enjoying the foliage and flowers of the petunias on our deck for years. Actually, they have recently switched to the coleus and tomato leaves since there are no petunias left! So it seems entirely possible that squirrels are the bean robbers. How in the world could you keep them out?

They left us only the cobs!

They left us only the cobs!

A few weeks later just as the Silver Queen corn was beginning to ripen, we went out to the garden and found that about two thirds of the corn in the Three Sisters garden had been pulled down and the ears were chewed down to the cob. Normally I would blame this on raccoons but I’m wondering if it was the woodchuck(s) again. To make matters worse, since it’s the Three Sisters garden, when they tore down the corn, they also tore down the rattlesnake beans that were climbing up the corn stalks! We can’t see where they might be getting in – it’s very frustrating.

Destruction in the Three Sisters garden!

Destruction in the Three Sisters garden!

Not much left of this butternut squash!

Not much left of this
butternut squash!

After the corn, the woodchuck started in on the butternut squash. He just got one or two before we discovered this latest attack! Luckily we were able to protect the rest of the squash from being eaten. It was too early to harvest so Eric pulled the squash (still on the vines) together in groups and we were able to set them in plastic crates with another crate wired on top like a little cage. A few of the squash were off by themselves so I just put one crate upside down over them and pinned it down with landscaping pins. This seems to have kept the critters at bay – for now. Hopefully it will last until it’s time to harvest the squash.

Our improvised squash protection cage!

One of our improvised squash protection cages! So far so good!

Oh boy! What next? So far everyone has mostly left the tomatoes and peppers alone. Guess I’d better knock on wood! And at this point the beans seem to be recovering and producing new foliage and flowers. Perhaps the acorns and hickory nuts are beginning to ripen!

Until next time – Happy Gardening!

Ragweed blooms amongst the goldenrod.

If you look carefully, you can see ragweed with its red stems and spikes of greenish flowers blooming in front of the goldenrod. No wonder goldenrod often gets the blame for our allergies!

It’s late summer and your eyes have become itchy and watery. Your nose is running and stuffy because you’ve been sneezing like crazy. There must be some pollen in the air wreaking havoc with your respiratory system! You look around and see many bright yellow goldenrods in the fields and along the roadside so naturally you assume these are the culprits. WRONG!

Goldenrod often gets a bad rap because it blooms (very conspicuously) at the same time as ragweed – the real pollen factory at this time of year.

A ragweed flower

The male ragweed flower produces a lot of pollen in a season!

Ragweed is a common weed that blooms in August and September with spikes of inconspicuous greenish flowers. If you look around where colorful yellow goldenrods are blooming, you will probably also see large stands of ragweed – they are just not as noticeable because they don’t have showy flowers.

Ragweed is a wind pollinated species and, like all plants that rely on wind as a means of pollen dispersal, it produces copious amounts of pollen in the hopes that some of it will eventually make it to a female ragweed flower. Unfortunately, a lot of it makes it into your eyes and nose resulting in those annoying allergies!

The ragweed flower is built for wind pollination. There are no showy flowers. Instead, the spikes of male flowers that form at the tips of the stems lack petals so that nothing gets in the way of the blowing pollen grains – billions of pollen grains! They billow unimpeded from the flowers into the air where they can remain for several days riding on air currents and traveling long distances!

Honey bees love goldenrod and the flowers will often be covered with these busy pollinators.

Honey bees love goldenrod and the flowers will often be covered with these busy pollinators.

Goldenrod on the other hand is insect pollinated and doesn’t produce the great quantities of pollen that ragweed does. And, goldenrod pollen is relatively large and too heavy to travel very far on the wind, so unless you stick your nose in a flower and inhale the pollen, it is unlikely to cause hay fever.

The goldenrods have showy flowers built to attract the insects that pollinate them. Insect pollination is a much more efficient way for plants to get their pollen where it needs to go – to another flower. But this efficiency does come with a cost – after all, you have to pay the “delivery man”! Plants that rely on insect pollinators usually produce sweet treats of nectar and/or protein-packed pollen as a reward for visits to their flowers.

A colorful moth pollinates goldenrod flowers.

This colorful moth is a frequent visitor to goldenrod flowers at the nursery.

In their travels collecting these “treats”, the insects transfer some of the pollen to other flowers resulting in pollination. The plants have to spend extra energy to produce the nectar and higher protein pollen but it pays off in the end because they get successful pollination with the production of much less pollen.

So when your allergies are really bothering you this fall, DON’T blame the goldenrod!

Until next time – Happy Gardening!

Tortoise beetle and larvae

Containers of Coleus, geranium, and herbs along the railing.

Containers of Coleus and geranium,
with herbs in pots along the railing.

We share our deck with lots of containers filled with beautiful plants. They add color and make it a more interesting place to sit and relax! Some of the pots are planted with flowers and foliage plants including some very colorful Coleus and others are planted with herbs that we snip fresh for cooking.

Two of the larger containers are planted with Juliet tomatoes. These miniature “Roma-type” tomatoes are our new favorite small tomato to grow instead of the cherry tomatoes we used to plant. In addition to the two on the deck, we also have two Juliet tomato plants growing in our vegetable garden. A tasty treat to munch on while working in the garden!

Juliet tomato

Juliet tomato

These delicious tomatoes are larger than a typical cherry tomato but bear just as prolifically. Their shape is oblong like a Roma tomato but they are smaller; growing up to 2¼” long and about 1¼” wide. They are meaty little guys and delicious straight off the vine (my favorite way to eat them), in salads, or for use in cooking. Yum!

Juliet is very crack resistant and stays fresh and firm on the vine longer than most cherry tomatoes. They also keep very well once picked but they always produce way more than we can eat fresh.

Juliet tomatoes are deliciously prolific!

Juliet tomatoes are deliciously prolific!

Last year in order to preserve the excess, we simply put them straight into freezer bags and froze them. Just straight off the vine – no processing required. Easy!

Whenever Eric made chili or soup or vegetable stew, he just pulled out a bunch of the frozen Juliet tomatoes, chopped them in thirds, and dropped them right in the pot. The skins can be fished out afterwards (or not) or you can thaw them a bit and slip the skins off before you cut them up. Simple and delicious!

Anyway …

Tomato leaf damage from the tortoise beetle

Tomato leaf damage from
the tortoise beetle

The other day when I went to pick some tomatoes off the plants on the deck, I noticed that several of the leaves were riddled with pretty large, very round holes. I’d never seen damage like this before. I’ve seen holes in leaves but never holes that were quite so uniformly round.

On further inspection, I found a few round, hard-shelled insects on the leaves. At first I thought they were some type of scale insect but when I poked one, it flew a short distance away and landed on another leaf – definitely NOT scale! Then there were some funky stationary ones that I assumed were either larvae or pupae.

Clavate tortoise beetle adult

Clavate tortoise beetle adult

This was a critter I was not familiar with. They didn’t seem to be doing much damage to the plant, just chewing lots of holes in a few of the leaves.

As it turns out, these were clavate tortoise beetles, Plagiometriona clavata. They do look a little like a turtle with a hard shell that covers not only their wings but their head as well. This particular species has a distinctive “teddy bear” shape on the shell.

Apparently these beetles are commonly found on plants in the solenaceous family which includes jimsonweed, nightshade, and also vegetable crops like tomato, pepper, and eggplant. We have four eggplants in a large container on the deck and I also noticed that a few of those leaves had these characteristic, round holes chewed in them. Tortoise beetles are also fond of morning glories which we happen to have planted in containers right beside our pots of Juliet tomatoes. Not surprisingly, many of the morning glory leaves are riddled with little round holes!

Tortoise beetle larva with fecal mass "shield"

Tortoise beetle larva with
fecal mass “shield”

The larvae of this beetle are unusual, too. They have an oval shaped, segmented body that is fringed with white spiny projections. The last segment of their body is modified with a forked projection which collects fecal material. This forked segment with the attached dried fecal mass is held over the body of the larva like a shield. It is thought that this may provide the larvae with some form of protection from predators through either camouflage or possibly as a type of repellent.

All-in-all, this is a very interesting and unique visitor to our plants and definitely not one that I had encountered before.

Always something new to learn in the garden!

Until next time – Happy Gardening!

Tomato Trouble

Tomato harvest

Well, it’s that time of the year! The tomato questions are pouring in on our discussion board, Andre’s radio show, and over the phone and e-mails. At this point, the questions are mostly concerning problems with the foliage and just a few about the fruit.

One of the most recent discussion board posts brought up an issue that many gardeners may not be aware of …

“I have six different varieties of tomato plants planted in my raised bed. I noticed last week that the leaves had curled upwards. This week I noticed now that the leaves appear to be a little wilted as well as the blooms. The growth also seems somewhat stunted …

There are several things that can cause tomato leaves to curl but this combination of symptoms seemed consistent with herbicide injury.

Tomato injury caused by 2,4-D

Tomato injury caused by 2,4-D exposure

Herbicide drift can be a major problem for tomatoes because they are very sensitive to broadleaf herbicides. Even light exposures can result in injury to the plants. If an herbicide like glyphosate (Roundup) or a product containing 2,4-D or dicamba is applied in the vicinity of a vegetable garden, it can easily drift onto the plants. Herbicides can drift quite far when caught by the wind!

If they are exposed to only small amounts, the plants will usually survive and eventually outgrow the damage. Heavier exposures can be lethal.

Drift is not the only way that tomatoes can be exposed to herbicides.

  • If you spray your tomatoes with a fungicide or insecticide using a sprayer that has also been used to spray an herbicide, there may be herbicide residue left in the tank.
  • Herbicide damage can also occur if tomatoes are mulched with grass clippings from a lawn that has been treated with a weed and feed product or a broad leaf weed killer.
  • Lately, there have even been problems with plant damage resulting from mulches and compost that have been made from hay or manure taken from fields that had been sprayed with the herbicide Grazon.
Characteristic symptoms of glyphosate injury - yellowing at base of leaflets

Telltale symptoms of glyphosate injury –
yellowing at base of leaflets

In this case, as I learned from a later post, it turns out that a neighbor had been spraying herbicides in his yard and the drift had hit the tomato patch. Hopefully over time the plants will recover but flowering and fruit production may be delayed.

The bottom line:

  • Never spray herbicides in windy or breezy conditions
  • Use separate sprayers for herbicides and pesticides
  • Don’t mulch your vegetable garden with grass clippings if you have treated your lawn with a broadleaf herbicide

What else can cause tomato leaves to curl?

Physiological leaf roll is due to environmental stress factors

Physiological leaf roll is due to
environmental stress factors

Curled or rolled leaves can also be a physiological response by the plant to adverse weather conditions; too hot, too dry, too wet, too windy. The overall growth of the plant is usually not affected and the symptoms normally disappear when conditions improve.

Be careful not to over-water tomatoes. Overly wet soil conditions are often to blame for leaf roll.

Mulching your tomatoes will help maintain more even moisture content in the soil and also helps to maintain a more constant soil temperature.

There are several viral diseases such as curly top, yellow leaf curl, and mosaic virus that can cause curling of leaves, as well as stunted growth and pale leaves. There is no cure for these diseases and the plants cannot be saved.

Tomatoes with yellowing foliage and brown patches

Fungal disease is responsible for the majority of the tomato problems we face.

Fungal disease is responsible for the
majority of the tomato problems we face.

Some of the most common tomato problems are caused by fungal diseases. The tomato blights (early blight and late blight), as well as some of the wilt diseases and leaf spot diseases can be devastating to tomato crops. The first symptom is normally the yellowing of the older, lower leaves and branches.

Fungal spores that cause these diseases are found in the soil and on plant debris left in the garden. It is very important to rake up and remove old plants, fallen leaves, and rotting fruit from the garden at the end of the season. This important “housekeeping” task will help to reduce the incidence of fungal disease in the following season.

Mulching around your vegetable plants is another great way to reduce disease. This keeps soil (which may be filled with fungal spores) from splashing up onto the stems and leaves of your vegetable plants. Mulching the vegetable garden has so many benefits that it is worth doing every year!

If your tomatoes are showing signs of disease, prune off the diseased branches and throw them in the trash (do not compost them).

To prevent the disease from spreading to healthy foliage, spray the plants with a fungicide that is listed for use on edibles (Bonide Copper Fungicide, Mancozeb, or Fung-onil). Sometimes it’s good to alternate different fungicides.

Always read and follow the label directions!

Here are a few more tips to help you avoid (or deal with) tomato problems this season. Here’s to a great harvest!

Until next time – Happy Gardening!

The rhododendron bald at Craggy Gardens

A few weeks ago, Eric and I took a trip down the Blue Ridge Parkway. We tried to time our trip to coincide with the rhododendron bloom in the North Carolina mountains, specifically at Craggy Gardens on the parkway just north of Asheville. While the native rhododendrons, Rhododendron catawbiense, were just beginning to show some color, the flame azaleas and mountain laurel were in full bloom. It was beautiful!

Mountain laurel in full bloom.

Mountain laurel in full bloom.

Azalea gall on native flame azalea

Azalea gall on native flame azalea

When we stopped to take some pictures, we noticed that a few of the azaleas had some strange growths on them that looked like some type of gall. It turns out that this was the azalea gall which is quite common on both native and hybrid azaleas. Catawba rhododendron is also quite susceptible. In fact, the majority of the rhododendrons growing on the rhododendron bald above the Craggy Gardens Visitor Center had at least a few of these unusual, fleshy galls.

I’ve written about galls on plants before but most of those I have talked about were galls that developed in response to insect activity.

Azalea gall has caused swelling and distortion of young leaf tissue of this native rhododendron

Azalea gall has caused swelling
and distortion of young leaf tissue
of this native rhododendron

The azalea gall, Exobasidium vaccinii, is caused by a fungus which infects the leaves, flowers, and branch tips of azaleas, rhododendron, and certain species of Vaccinium like blueberries and cranberries.

The fungus causes abnormal growth in the tissues that are infected. These swollen tissues form the gall and cause distortion of the leaves, stems, or flowers.

Azalea galls can be light green, pinkish, or (as we most often observed) white.

This pale green gall will become white once the spore layer forms

This pale green gall will become
white once the spore layer forms

During the late spring and early summer, a white spore layer forms on the surface of the gall. This may be why all the ones we saw were white. These spores are dispersed by wind or rain to healthy leaves or flower buds on the same or different susceptible plants. The fungus remains dormant in these tissues until the following spring when new galls form soon after the plant begins to grow. Once the spores are released, the gall begins to turn brown and eventually dries up and falls to the ground.

Cool, wet weather favors the dispersal of the fungal spores. Up on the ridge tops of the Blue Ridge Mountains where native rhododendron and azalea are prevalent, fog and misty rains are common in the spring and summer. These conditions are perfect for the spread of this disease.

The rhododendron bald at Craggy Gardens is enveloped in a misty fog

The rhododendron bald at Craggy Gardens is enveloped in a misty fog

A rhododendron flower is completely distorted by a gall

A rhododendron flower is
completely distorted by a gall

Though the azalea galls may look harmful, normally, they do not have an adverse effect on the plants. However, if cool, wet weather persists during the time of spore dispersal, the disease can spread more readily and result in the formation of many more galls the following spring. This can sometimes have a negative effect on the health and vigor of the plant.

Usually only a portion of the flower head is affected.

Often only part of the flower head
is affected by the gall.

Azalea gall is a common problem in many hybrid azaleas. Physical removal of galls is the simplest control method. Galls should be pruned out with shears before the white spore layer forms.

If galls are prevalent or conditions are favorable for the spread of the disease, fungicide applications may be warranted. Bonide Fung-onil or Bonide Mancozeb can be applied according to the label directions to control azalea leaf and flower gall. Begin applications just prior to bud break in the spring.

Until next time – Happy Gardening!

Asparagus beetle damage

Asparagus beetles cause mostly cosmetic damage

Asparagus beetles

The other day I had a call from a gardener who was having trouble with asparagus beetles chewing on his asparagus. These beetles don’t usually do a lot of damage but they can make the spears look a bit ragged especially at the tip. If not controlled, however, a heavy infestation of beetles and their larvae can cause defoliation of the asparagus ferns during the summer. This can weaken the plants and reduce spear production the following spring.

Asparagus beetle eggs and stem damage

Asparagus beetle eggs and stem damage

One of the worst parts about having asparagus beetles is that they lay their eggs all over the asparagus stems. These black cigar-shaped eggs are very prominent, sticking out at a right angle up and down the stalk like little prickers. Not very appetizing to say the least! If you have asparagus beetles, you will have the eggs and lots of them! There are two types of asparagus beetles in our area; the common asparagus beetle (Crioceris asparagi) and the spotted asparagus beetle (Crioceris duodecimpunctata).

Common asparagus beetle

Common asparagus beetle

Spotted asparagus beetle

Spotted asparagus beetle

Asparagus beetle eggs stick out from the stem. Damage to the stem from feeding is also evident.

Damage to the stem from feeding

The common asparagus beetle is the most prevalent and unfortunately is the one that does the most damage to the plant. Most of the time, unless there is a heavy infestation, the damage is purely cosmetic. The beetles feed on the stem leaving shallow grooves and scars on the surface. In some cases, the spears can become disfigured, ragged, and bent over like a shepherd’s crook. However, it’s the presence of those little black eggs sticking out all over the spears that is often the most objectionable part of an asparagus beetle invasion! Luckily, they are fairly easy to rub or scrape off when you are preparing the spears for consumption.

Control of Asparagus Beetles

Our asparagus patch is relatively small so I normally just hand pick the beetles and squish them when I find them. If you have a larger bed, this can become an overwhelming job. If you cut the spears when they are still pretty short (about 8″ or so), they normally don’t have much damage and early harvesting has the added benefit of removing any eggs before they have a chance to hatch.

Lady beetle adult

Lady beetle adult

Natural predators in your garden can reduce asparagus beetle eggs and the caterpillar-like larvae. A small parasitic wasp will attack and destroy the eggs. Lady beetles, which are similar in coloration to the spotted asparagus beetle but are round rather than oval in shape, will consume both eggs and larvae of the asparagus beetle. Another trick is to leave a few of the asparagus unharvested. Asparagus beetles are attracted to mature plants with a lot of foliage so these plants can become “trap” plants and the emerging spears are more likely to be left alone. In large plantings or when there are more severe infestations, pesticide applications may be warranted.

Bonide Neem Oil and Pyrethrin are good organic controls for asparagus beetles. These can be used pre-harvest or post-harvest according to the label directions.

For organic control post-harvest only, Bonide Captain Jack’s Deadbug Brew which contains spinosad is a good option.

Chemical insecticides to control asparagus beetles include Bonide Eight (permethrin) and Sevin (carbaryl). Be sure to apply according to the label instructions and ALWAYS follow the pre-harvest interval recommendations.

NEVER spray an insecticide (organic OR chemical) when the bees are active. Just because a pesticide is listed as organic doesn’t mean it isn’t toxic to bees and other pollinators. The best time to spray is in the early morning or in the evening when they are less likely to be collecting nectar. Once the foliage begins to yellow in the fall, cut the plants to the ground and throw the foliage in the trash rather than into the compost pile. Weed and rake up all plant debris around the asparagus bed. This will reduce overwintering sites and help lower populations of these beetles the following spring.

Until next time – Happy Gardening!


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