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Ragweed blooms amongst the goldenrod.

If you look carefully, you can see ragweed with its red stems and spikes of greenish flowers blooming in front of the goldenrod. No wonder goldenrod often gets the blame for our allergies!

It’s late summer and your eyes have become itchy and watery. Your nose is running and stuffy because you’ve been sneezing like crazy. There must be some pollen in the air wreaking havoc with your respiratory system! You look around and see many bright yellow goldenrods in the fields and along the roadside so naturally you assume these are the culprits. WRONG!

Goldenrod often gets a bad rap because it blooms (very conspicuously) at the same time as ragweed – the real pollen factory at this time of year.

A ragweed flower

The male ragweed flower produces a lot of pollen in a season!

Ragweed is a common weed that blooms in August and September with spikes of inconspicuous greenish flowers. If you look around where colorful yellow goldenrods are blooming, you will probably also see large stands of ragweed – they are just not as noticeable because they don’t have showy flowers.

Ragweed is a wind pollinated species and, like all plants that rely on wind as a means of pollen dispersal, it produces copious amounts of pollen in the hopes that some of it will eventually make it to a female ragweed flower. Unfortunately, a lot of it makes it into your eyes and nose resulting in those annoying allergies!

The ragweed flower is built for wind pollination. There are no showy flowers. Instead, the spikes of male flowers that form at the tips of the stems lack petals so that nothing gets in the way of the blowing pollen grains – billions of pollen grains! They billow unimpeded from the flowers into the air where they can remain for several days riding on air currents and traveling long distances!

Honey bees love goldenrod and the flowers will often be covered with these busy pollinators.

Honey bees love goldenrod and the flowers will often be covered with these busy pollinators.

Goldenrod on the other hand is insect pollinated and doesn’t produce the great quantities of pollen that ragweed does. And, goldenrod pollen is relatively large and too heavy to travel very far on the wind, so unless you stick your nose in a flower and inhale the pollen, it is unlikely to cause hay fever.

The goldenrods have showy flowers built to attract the insects that pollinate them. Insect pollination is a much more efficient way for plants to get their pollen where it needs to go – to another flower. But this efficiency does come with a cost – after all, you have to pay the “delivery man”! Plants that rely on insect pollinators usually produce sweet treats of nectar and/or protein-packed pollen as a reward for visits to their flowers.

A colorful moth pollinates goldenrod flowers.

This colorful moth is a frequent visitor to goldenrod flowers at the nursery.

In their travels collecting these “treats”, the insects transfer some of the pollen to other flowers resulting in pollination. The plants have to spend extra energy to produce the nectar and higher protein pollen but it pays off in the end because they get successful pollination with the production of much less pollen.

So when your allergies are really bothering you this fall, DON’T blame the goldenrod!

Until next time – Happy Gardening!

Tortoise beetle and larvae

Containers of Coleus, geranium, and herbs along the railing.

Containers of Coleus and geranium,
with herbs in pots along the railing.

We share our deck with lots of containers filled with beautiful plants. They add color and make it a more interesting place to sit and relax! Some of the pots are planted with flowers and foliage plants including some very colorful Coleus and others are planted with herbs that we snip fresh for cooking.

Two of the larger containers are planted with Juliet tomatoes. These miniature “Roma-type” tomatoes are our new favorite small tomato to grow instead of the cherry tomatoes we used to plant. In addition to the two on the deck, we also have two Juliet tomato plants growing in our vegetable garden. A tasty treat to munch on while working in the garden!

Juliet tomato

Juliet tomato

These delicious tomatoes are larger than a typical cherry tomato but bear just as prolifically. Their shape is oblong like a Roma tomato but they are smaller; growing up to 2¼” long and about 1¼” wide. They are meaty little guys and delicious straight off the vine (my favorite way to eat them), in salads, or for use in cooking. Yum!

Juliet is very crack resistant and stays fresh and firm on the vine longer than most cherry tomatoes. They also keep very well once picked but they always produce way more than we can eat fresh.

Juliet tomatoes are deliciously prolific!

Juliet tomatoes are deliciously prolific!

Last year in order to preserve the excess, we simply put them straight into freezer bags and froze them. Just straight off the vine – no processing required. Easy!

Whenever Eric made chili or soup or vegetable stew, he just pulled out a bunch of the frozen Juliet tomatoes, chopped them in thirds, and dropped them right in the pot. The skins can be fished out afterwards (or not) or you can thaw them a bit and slip the skins off before you cut them up. Simple and delicious!

Anyway …

Tomato leaf damage from the tortoise beetle

Tomato leaf damage from
the tortoise beetle

The other day when I went to pick some tomatoes off the plants on the deck, I noticed that several of the leaves were riddled with pretty large, very round holes. I’d never seen damage like this before. I’ve seen holes in leaves but never holes that were quite so uniformly round.

On further inspection, I found a few round, hard-shelled insects on the leaves. At first I thought they were some type of scale insect but when I poked one, it flew a short distance away and landed on another leaf – definitely NOT scale! Then there were some funky stationary ones that I assumed were either larvae or pupae.

Clavate tortoise beetle adult

Clavate tortoise beetle adult

This was a critter I was not familiar with. They didn’t seem to be doing much damage to the plant, just chewing lots of holes in a few of the leaves.

As it turns out, these were clavate tortoise beetles, Plagiometriona clavata. They do look a little like a turtle with a hard shell that covers not only their wings but their head as well. This particular species has a distinctive “teddy bear” shape on the shell.

Apparently these beetles are commonly found on plants in the solenaceous family which includes jimsonweed, nightshade, and also vegetable crops like tomato, pepper, and eggplant. We have four eggplants in a large container on the deck and I also noticed that a few of those leaves had these characteristic, round holes chewed in them. Tortoise beetles are also fond of morning glories which we happen to have planted in containers right beside our pots of Juliet tomatoes. Not surprisingly, many of the morning glory leaves are riddled with little round holes!

Tortoise beetle larva with fecal mass "shield"

Tortoise beetle larva with
fecal mass “shield”

The larvae of this beetle are unusual, too. They have an oval shaped, segmented body that is fringed with white spiny projections. The last segment of their body is modified with a forked projection which collects fecal material. This forked segment with the attached dried fecal mass is held over the body of the larva like a shield. It is thought that this may provide the larvae with some form of protection from predators through either camouflage or possibly as a type of repellent.

All-in-all, this is a very interesting and unique visitor to our plants and definitely not one that I had encountered before.

Always something new to learn in the garden!

Until next time – Happy Gardening!

Tomato Trouble

Tomato harvest

Well, it’s that time of the year! The tomato questions are pouring in on our discussion board, Andre’s radio show, and over the phone and e-mails. At this point, the questions are mostly concerning problems with the foliage and just a few about the fruit.

One of the most recent discussion board posts brought up an issue that many gardeners may not be aware of …

“I have six different varieties of tomato plants planted in my raised bed. I noticed last week that the leaves had curled upwards. This week I noticed now that the leaves appear to be a little wilted as well as the blooms. The growth also seems somewhat stunted …

There are several things that can cause tomato leaves to curl but this combination of symptoms seemed consistent with herbicide injury.

Tomato injury caused by 2,4-D

Tomato injury caused by 2,4-D exposure

Herbicide drift can be a major problem for tomatoes because they are very sensitive to broadleaf herbicides. Even light exposures can result in injury to the plants. If an herbicide like glyphosate (Roundup) or a product containing 2,4-D or dicamba is applied in the vicinity of a vegetable garden, it can easily drift onto the plants. Herbicides can drift quite far when caught by the wind!

If they are exposed to only small amounts, the plants will usually survive and eventually outgrow the damage. Heavier exposures can be lethal.

Drift is not the only way that tomatoes can be exposed to herbicides.

  • If you spray your tomatoes with a fungicide or insecticide using a sprayer that has also been used to spray an herbicide, there may be herbicide residue left in the tank.
  • Herbicide damage can also occur if tomatoes are mulched with grass clippings from a lawn that has been treated with a weed and feed product or a broad leaf weed killer.
  • Lately, there have even been problems with plant damage resulting from mulches and compost that have been made from hay or manure taken from fields that had been sprayed with the herbicide Grazon.
Characteristic symptoms of glyphosate injury - yellowing at base of leaflets

Telltale symptoms of glyphosate injury –
yellowing at base of leaflets

In this case, as I learned from a later post, it turns out that a neighbor had been spraying herbicides in his yard and the drift had hit the tomato patch. Hopefully over time the plants will recover but flowering and fruit production may be delayed.

The bottom line:

  • Never spray herbicides in windy or breezy conditions
  • Use separate sprayers for herbicides and pesticides
  • Don’t mulch your vegetable garden with grass clippings if you have treated your lawn with a broadleaf herbicide

What else can cause tomato leaves to curl?

Physiological leaf roll is due to environmental stress factors

Physiological leaf roll is due to
environmental stress factors

Curled or rolled leaves can also be a physiological response by the plant to adverse weather conditions; too hot, too dry, too wet, too windy. The overall growth of the plant is usually not affected and the symptoms normally disappear when conditions improve.

Be careful not to over-water tomatoes. Overly wet soil conditions are often to blame for leaf roll.

Mulching your tomatoes will help maintain more even moisture content in the soil and also helps to maintain a more constant soil temperature.

There are several viral diseases such as curly top, yellow leaf curl, and mosaic virus that can cause curling of leaves, as well as stunted growth and pale leaves. There is no cure for these diseases and the plants cannot be saved.

Tomatoes with yellowing foliage and brown patches

Fungal disease is responsible for the majority of the tomato problems we face.

Fungal disease is responsible for the
majority of the tomato problems we face.

Some of the most common tomato problems are caused by fungal diseases. The tomato blights (early blight and late blight), as well as some of the wilt diseases and leaf spot diseases can be devastating to tomato crops. The first symptom is normally the yellowing of the older, lower leaves and branches.

Fungal spores that cause these diseases are found in the soil and on plant debris left in the garden. It is very important to rake up and remove old plants, fallen leaves, and rotting fruit from the garden at the end of the season. This important “housekeeping” task will help to reduce the incidence of fungal disease in the following season.

Mulching around your vegetable plants is another great way to reduce disease. This keeps soil (which may be filled with fungal spores) from splashing up onto the stems and leaves of your vegetable plants. Mulching the vegetable garden has so many benefits that it is worth doing every year!

If your tomatoes are showing signs of disease, prune off the diseased branches and throw them in the trash (do not compost them).

To prevent the disease from spreading to healthy foliage, spray the plants with a fungicide that is listed for use on edibles (Bonide Copper Fungicide, Mancozeb, or Fung-onil). Sometimes it’s good to alternate different fungicides.

Always read and follow the label directions!

Here are a few more tips to help you avoid (or deal with) tomato problems this season. Here’s to a great harvest!

Until next time – Happy Gardening!

The rhododendron bald at Craggy Gardens

A few weeks ago, Eric and I took a trip down the Blue Ridge Parkway. We tried to time our trip to coincide with the rhododendron bloom in the North Carolina mountains, specifically at Craggy Gardens on the parkway just north of Asheville. While the native rhododendrons, Rhododendron catawbiense, were just beginning to show some color, the flame azaleas and mountain laurel were in full bloom. It was beautiful!

Mountain laurel in full bloom.

Mountain laurel in full bloom.

Azalea gall on native flame azalea

Azalea gall on native flame azalea

When we stopped to take some pictures, we noticed that a few of the azaleas had some strange growths on them that looked like some type of gall. It turns out that this was the azalea gall which is quite common on both native and hybrid azaleas. Catawba rhododendron is also quite susceptible. In fact, the majority of the rhododendrons growing on the rhododendron bald above the Craggy Gardens Visitor Center had at least a few of these unusual, fleshy galls.

I’ve written about galls on plants before but most of those I have talked about were galls that developed in response to insect activity.

Azalea gall has caused swelling and distortion of young leaf tissue of this native rhododendron

Azalea gall has caused swelling
and distortion of young leaf tissue
of this native rhododendron

The azalea gall, Exobasidium vaccinii, is caused by a fungus which infects the leaves, flowers, and branch tips of azaleas, rhododendron, and certain species of Vaccinium like blueberries and cranberries.

The fungus causes abnormal growth in the tissues that are infected. These swollen tissues form the gall and cause distortion of the leaves, stems, or flowers.

Azalea galls can be light green, pinkish, or (as we most often observed) white.

This pale green gall will become white once the spore layer forms

This pale green gall will become
white once the spore layer forms

During the late spring and early summer, a white spore layer forms on the surface of the gall. This may be why all the ones we saw were white. These spores are dispersed by wind or rain to healthy leaves or flower buds on the same or different susceptible plants. The fungus remains dormant in these tissues until the following spring when new galls form soon after the plant begins to grow. Once the spores are released, the gall begins to turn brown and eventually dries up and falls to the ground.

Cool, wet weather favors the dispersal of the fungal spores. Up on the ridge tops of the Blue Ridge Mountains where native rhododendron and azalea are prevalent, fog and misty rains are common in the spring and summer. These conditions are perfect for the spread of this disease.

The rhododendron bald at Craggy Gardens is enveloped in a misty fog

The rhododendron bald at Craggy Gardens is enveloped in a misty fog

A rhododendron flower is completely distorted by a gall

A rhododendron flower is
completely distorted by a gall

Though the azalea galls may look harmful, normally, they do not have an adverse effect on the plants. However, if cool, wet weather persists during the time of spore dispersal, the disease can spread more readily and result in the formation of many more galls the following spring. This can sometimes have a negative effect on the health and vigor of the plant.

Usually only a portion of the flower head is affected.

Often only part of the flower head
is affected by the gall.

Azalea gall is a common problem in many hybrid azaleas. Physical removal of galls is the simplest control method. Galls should be pruned out with shears before the white spore layer forms.

If galls are prevalent or conditions are favorable for the spread of the disease, fungicide applications may be warranted. Bonide Fung-onil or Bonide Mancozeb can be applied according to the label directions to control azalea leaf and flower gall. Begin applications just prior to bud break in the spring.

Until next time – Happy Gardening!

Asparagus beetle damage

Asparagus beetles cause mostly cosmetic damage

Asparagus beetles

The other day I had a call from a gardener who was having trouble with asparagus beetles chewing on his asparagus. These beetles don’t usually do a lot of damage but they can make the spears look a bit ragged especially at the tip. If not controlled, however, a heavy infestation of beetles and their larvae can cause defoliation of the asparagus ferns during the summer. This can weaken the plants and reduce spear production the following spring.

Asparagus beetle eggs and stem damage

Asparagus beetle eggs and stem damage

One of the worst parts about having asparagus beetles is that they lay their eggs all over the asparagus stems. These black cigar-shaped eggs are very prominent, sticking out at a right angle up and down the stalk like little prickers. Not very appetizing to say the least! If you have asparagus beetles, you will have the eggs and lots of them! There are two types of asparagus beetles in our area; the common asparagus beetle (Crioceris asparagi) and the spotted asparagus beetle (Crioceris duodecimpunctata).

Common asparagus beetle

Common asparagus beetle

Spotted asparagus beetle

Spotted asparagus beetle

Asparagus beetle eggs stick out from the stem. Damage to the stem from feeding is also evident.

Damage to the stem from feeding

The common asparagus beetle is the most prevalent and unfortunately is the one that does the most damage to the plant. Most of the time, unless there is a heavy infestation, the damage is purely cosmetic. The beetles feed on the stem leaving shallow grooves and scars on the surface. In some cases, the spears can become disfigured, ragged, and bent over like a shepherd’s crook. However, it’s the presence of those little black eggs sticking out all over the spears that is often the most objectionable part of an asparagus beetle invasion! Luckily, they are fairly easy to rub or scrape off when you are preparing the spears for consumption.

Control of Asparagus Beetles

Our asparagus patch is relatively small so I normally just hand pick the beetles and squish them when I find them. If you have a larger bed, this can become an overwhelming job. If you cut the spears when they are still pretty short (about 8″ or so), they normally don’t have much damage and early harvesting has the added benefit of removing any eggs before they have a chance to hatch.

Lady beetle adult

Lady beetle adult

Natural predators in your garden can reduce asparagus beetle eggs and the caterpillar-like larvae. A small parasitic wasp will attack and destroy the eggs. Lady beetles, which are similar in coloration to the spotted asparagus beetle but are round rather than oval in shape, will consume both eggs and larvae of the asparagus beetle. Another trick is to leave a few of the asparagus unharvested. Asparagus beetles are attracted to mature plants with a lot of foliage so these plants can become “trap” plants and the emerging spears are more likely to be left alone. In large plantings or when there are more severe infestations, pesticide applications may be warranted.

Bonide Neem Oil and Pyrethrin are good organic controls for asparagus beetles. These can be used pre-harvest or post-harvest according to the label directions.

For organic control post-harvest only, Bonide Captain Jack’s Deadbug Brew which contains spinosad is a good option.

Chemical insecticides to control asparagus beetles include Bonide Eight (permethrin) and Sevin (carbaryl). Be sure to apply according to the label instructions and ALWAYS follow the pre-harvest interval recommendations.

NEVER spray an insecticide (organic OR chemical) when the bees are active. Just because a pesticide is listed as organic doesn’t mean it isn’t toxic to bees and other pollinators. The best time to spray is in the early morning or in the evening when they are less likely to be collecting nectar. Once the foliage begins to yellow in the fall, cut the plants to the ground and throw the foliage in the trash rather than into the compost pile. Weed and rake up all plant debris around the asparagus bed. This will reduce overwintering sites and help lower populations of these beetles the following spring.

Until next time – Happy Gardening!

View from the top of Reddish Knob

Last weekend Eric and I went on two amazing day trips to different places in the Allegheny Mountains of western Virginia. What a glorious weekend for hiking in the woods.

Huge bud of a hickory bursting open

Huge bud of a hickory bursting open

Up there spring was just starting. It was like traveling back in time about two weeks. In addition to taking in the beautiful views, we were hunting for spring wildflowers.

On Saturday, we drove to Hone Quarry in the George Washington National Forest. This recreation area sits at about 1,933′ and has several hiking trails running through it. We walked along one of the ridge trails for a while and saw lots of different budding and blooming wildflowers, as well as trees and shrubs that were beginning to break into growth.

Fringed Polygala or Gaywings (Polygala paucifolia)

Fringed Polygala or Gaywings
(Polygala paucifolia)

A white form of Gaywings

Less common white form of Gaywings

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sessile-leaved Bellwort (Uvularia sessilifolia)

Sessile-leaved Bellwort
(Uvularia sessilifolia)

Long-spurred Violet (Viola rostrata)

Long-spurred Violet (Viola rostrata)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flower of Striped Maple (Acer pensylvanicum)

Flower of Striped Maple
(Acer pensylvanicum)

Dwarf Cinquefoil (Potentilla canadensis)

Dwarf Cinquefoil
(Potentilla canadensis)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens)

Wintergreen
(Gaultheria procumbens)

Partridgeberry (Mitchella repens)

Partridgeberry (Mitchella repens)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hepatica flower

Hepatica flower

 

The name Hepatica comes from the foliage which resembles the lobes of the liver

The name Hepatica comes from
the foliage which resembles the
lobes of the liver.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On Sunday, we decided to drive up to the top of Reddish Knob, one of the highest points in Virginia at 4,397′ and the highest peak on the 73 mile long Shenandoah Mountain.

The drive to Reddish Knob was spectacular. We drove through an area where a fairly recent (within a few years) forest fire had gone through. The road appeared to be the firebreak and there was an interesting contrast in the vegetation between the two sides of the road.

Mountain Fetterbush (Pieris floribunda) was the predominant ground cover in the fire scorched woods. Many of the pines were killed.

Mountain Fetterbush (Pieris floribunda) was the predominant ground cover
in the fire scorched woods. Many of the pines were killed.

At one time, there was a fire tower on top of Reddish Knob – which is the primary reason that there is a road to the summit. From the parking lot, the site of the old fire tower, you feel like you are on top of the world with a 360° panoramic view of the surrounding area! Stunning!

On the way back down, we continued south on a rough dirt forestry road. It was great road but I’m glad we were in my 4-wheel drive truck! We made frequent stops to check out wildflowers and scenic views along the way.

Birdfoot Violet (Viola pedata) growing on a steep bank

Birdfoot Violet (Viola pedata)
growing on a steep bank

Wild Pink (Silene caroliniana) found a foothold in the rock face.

Wild Pink (Silene caroliniana) found
a foothold in the rock face.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dwarf Iris (Iris verna)

Dwarf Iris (Iris verna)

A little sedum grows on a rock amongst lichen, moss, and a Christmas Fern

A little sedum grows on a rock amongst
lichen, moss, and Christmas Fern

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Red Trillium (Trillium erectum)

Red Trillium (Trillium erectum)
grows beside a Striped Maple)

Wild Ginger (Asarum canadense) with its often unnoticed flower

Wild Ginger (Asarum canadense)
with its often unnoticed flower

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) had gone to seed

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)
had gone to seed

The curious flowers of Miterwort (Mitella diphylla)

The curious flowers of Miterwort
(Mitella diphylla)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Toothwort (Dentaria diphylla)

Toothwort (Dentaria diphylla)

Mountain Anemone (Anemone lancifolia)

Mountain Anemone
(Anemone lancifolia)

What an awesome way to spend a spring weekend!

Until next time – Happy Spring!

Male oak catkins dangle from oak branches

Mature oaks usually retain leaves only on their lower branches.

Swelling buds in the spring pop
off marcescent leaves.

Spring has been slow to come to the Shenandoah Valley this year. It has been cold and windy for days; not feeling very spring-like despite what the calendar says.

Regardless of the chilly temps, I have observed the steady progression of the season in the trees surrounding our house. A few weeks ago, I noticed that the oaks had finally shed the last of their marcescent leaves as the buds began to swell. Soon after, the male oak flowers started to appear.

Oak trees produce separate male and female flowers on the same tree.

The male flowers develop first just as the tiny leaves begin to form. These conspicuous flowers are long, yellow catkins that dangle down from the tips of the branches.

Tiny staminate flowers arranged along a central stem make up the catkin.

Tiny staminate flowers arranged along
a central stem make up the catkin.

Pollen from these flowers blows through air to pollinate female flowers on nearby trees. Oak pollen is produced in copious amounts and can cause real problems for those that are allergic to tree pollen. Since the catkins shed their pollen before the leaves are fully expanded, the pollen is able to drift relatively unimpeded through the air to reach the female flowers.

The female oak flowers are much less obvious and in fact are seldom seen because they are very small and generally found on the tips of branches higher up in the tree. If pollinated, the female flowers will give rise to acorns – eventually.

Female oak flowers are quite inconspicuous

Female oak flowers are quite
inconspicuous. Red oak shown here

Oaks are broadly divided into two main groups; the red oak (or black oak) group and the white oak group.

In general, trees in the red oak group have pointed lobed leaves and trees in the white oak group have rounded lobed leaves.

Acorn development is different between these two groups. Acorns in the white oak group are sweet and palatable and mature in one season. It takes two years for acorns in the red oak group to mature; so in the fall, you may notice tiny one-year old acorns as well as the larger two-year old acorns on the same tree. Red oak acorns are very bitter tasting.

Red oaks as a group generally flower earlier that the white oak group. Our mature red oaks have thousands of catkins hanging off the branches right now while the white oaks, which include the chestnut oaks, are just beginning to bud out.

Acorn production can be affected by certain weather conditions that disrupt flowering or hinder pollination.

Oaks rely on wind rather than insects for pollination. If the weather is misty and rainy during the time that the oak pollen is being shed, the pollen can be washed right out of the air. This can limit pollination and reduce the acorn production for that year. Freezing temperatures in the spring can kill the flowers and also reduce the acorn crop.

Dried up catkins and some yellow oak pollen litter the deck

Dried up catkins and some
yellow oak pollen litter the deck

In a good year (for the oaks, that is), the yellow oak pollen billows from the trees on the slightest of breezes. Some of it will reach female flowers on adjacent oaks but it seems that most of it just settles to the ground.

So far, not much pollen has been released; it can be up to two weeks after the male flowers first appear before pollen is shed.

I know the pollen clouds are coming and once they do, everything outside will be covered with a fine yellow dust!

Once their pollen is shed, the catkins dry up and drop from the tree. The ground under the trees becomes littered with these spent flowers.

Coming up - the pine pollen!

Coming up – the pine pollen!

We find them all over the deck, on the roof, in the gutters, on the cars …

Just yesterday, I noticed that the male cones on the tips of the pine branches have begun to develop. More pollen is on the way!

Until next time –

Happy Gardening!

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