Feeds:
Posts
Comments

ButterflyBuddleia

Take time to stop and smell the flowers!

Children can't resist smelling the flowers!

Children can’t resist
smelling the flowers!

Have you ever noticed small children in a flower garden? They tend to immediately bury their little noses into the flowers and smell them.

We adults need to take the time to do the same – and many of us do! Especially when the daylilies are blooming at the nursery, I see so many people, adults and children alike, walking around with the telltale sign of flower sniffing – orange pollen on their nose!

The peonies and iris are blooming in the gardens now and many of these have a wonderful sweet fragrance.

Viburnum carlesii fills the air with its sweet perfume in the spring

Viburnum carlesii fills the air with
its sweet perfume in the spring

When planning a garden, it is important to not only consider form, structure, texture, and color in the flower bed, but also fragrance. Your sense of smell can often bring back pleasant memories of places and times in your past. Whenever I walk past a blooming Viburnum carlesii, I am transported back to my childhood home where a magnificent specimen of these intensely fragrant shrubs grew at the corner of our patio.

What wonderful memories!

What flower fragrances take you back? Roses, lilacs, honeysuckle …
Be sure to incorporate some of those plants into your gardens!

Peony 'Belle Chinoise' has a lovely fragrance

Peony ‘Belle Chinoise’ has
a lovely fragrance

You should plant pockets of fragrant flowers where you will enjoy them the most – near the porch, deck, patio, or poolside. Another good place for a touch of fragrance is along a favorite garden path or beside your sidewalk or driveway. If you place plants with fragrant foliage at the edge of your garden path, the fragrance will be released when you brush against it as you pass by. An interesting idea to keep in mind!

The fragrance of certain flowers is more obvious during various periods of time – when the weather is warm and the air moist, or when the sun goes down and the night bloomers emit their sweetness into the air. I love driving by a patch of wild honeysuckle in the early evening with the windows down – their sweet perfume just wafts into the open windows.
Such a delight!

The beautiful honeysuckle flowers fill the air with sweet summer fragrance

The beautiful honeysuckle flowers fill the air with sweet summer fragrance

Fragrance can be added to the landscape and garden through the use of trees, vines, shrubs, annuals, bulbs, and perennials. There are many fragrant choices in each of these categories.

Some fragrant spring flowers include:

Lilac Sensation

Lilac ‘Sensation’

Trees and Shrubs:

  • Magnolia
  • Calycanthus floridus (Sweet Shrub)
  • flowering quince
  • Daphne
  • Mock Orange
  • Lilac
  • Viburnum
  • Wisteria

Perennials and bulbs:

  • Convallaria majalis (Lily-of-the-Valley)
  • many peonies (like ‘Phillipe Revoire’, ‘Belle Chinoise’, and ‘Le Cygne’)
  • Dianthus
  • Primula
  • many tall bearded iris
  • Jonquils and hyacinths

For summer fragrance, try:

Fragrant flowers of Buddleia attract loads of butterflies

Fragrant flowers of Buddleia
attract loads of butterflies

Shrubs:

  • Buddleia (Butterfly Bush)
  • Clethra (Summersweet Clethera)
  • roses

Vines:

  • Clematis
  • Jasmine
  • honeysuckle
  • moonflower
  • sweet pea

Annual flowers:

  • Snapdragons
  • Cosmos
  • Four O’clocks
  • Nicotiana
  • marigolds
Astilbe bring color as well as fragrance to the shade garden.

Astilbe bring color as well as fragrance
to the shade garden.

Perennials:

  • Astilbe
  • Lilium (oriental lilies)
  • Lavandula (Lavender)
  • Nepeta
  • certain hosta varieties
  • some Monarda and Phlox paniculata hybrids
  • Perovskia (Russian Sage)
  • some daylily varieties
  • Yucca

With the fall comes:

  • Common Witchhazel (Hamamelis virginiana)
  • Sweet Autumn Clematis.
Many interesting varieties of lavender are available including a silver edged lavender

Many interesting varieties of
lavender are available including
a silver edged form

Fragrance from Foliage

There are many plants that produce fragrant foliage rather than fragrant flowers but the fragrance is none-the-less intoxicating. Try the many varieties of thyme, lavender, rosemary, basil, the mints, and a host of other herbs. Artemisia, hay-scented fern, sweet woodruff, lemon grass, lemon verbena, heliotrope, and scented geraniums are a few others that will add a pleasant scent to the garden or containers.

And, of course, everyone loves the many fragrant boughs of evergreens that are used at Christmas time to bring a spicy, nostalgic aroma indoors.

Until next time – Don’t forget to stop and smell the flowers!

Happy Arbor Day!

Today is Arbor Day!

Celebrate! Plant a tree!

Show someone close to your heart that you really care about them by planting a tree in their honor or in memory of a loved one. One day it will grow to be a majestic tribute to that very special person!

A majestic oak silhouetted against the winter sky

Here are a few tips for planting trees.

 

Below is a post that I wrote on Arbor Day in 2012.

I thought I would share it today in honor of Arbor Day 2016!

 

Today is National Arbor Day!

Our new woodland garden replaces our front lawn!

Our new woodland garden replaces our front lawn! We planted a little pink dogwood, hosta, and several azaleas. Now it just needs some mulch.

It’s always the last Friday in April although some states recognize a different State Arbor Day that corresponds better with planting times in their state. Since Arbor Day was founded in 1872, it has been customary to plant a tree in observance of the holiday and on that first Arbor Day, it is estimated that about one million trees were planted.

As you celebrate Arbor Day this year, keep in mind that as important as it is to plant new trees, it is equally important to care for and protect the trees that are already growing in your landscape.

Damage to mature trees due to insects and diseases (many introduced from other countries) can be devastating to your landscape as well as the surrounding areas and adjoining forests. Diseases such as the Chestnut blight and Dutch elm disease and exotic insects like the emerald ash borer and the Asian long-horned beetle have killed tens of millions of trees across the U.S.

Chestnut blight canker on the stems of a young American Chestnut. Photo by Eric Jones

Chestnut blight canker on the stem of a young American Chestnut.
Photo by Eric Jones

The chestnut blight, caused by a fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica), was introduced to North America from Asia in the early 1900’s either on infected lumber or through diseased trees. Within 40 years of its introduction, virtually all the chestnut trees in North America were wiped out. Although mature American chestnut trees have disappeared from our forests, small trees often grow from stump sprouts since the blight doesn’t kill the roots. Unfortunately, these small trees rarely grow to reproductive age before they are attacked and killed by the fungus. Such a sad ending for these once majestic trees which often reached 200 feet tall and 14 feet across! There is no cure for this disease but much work has been done to genetically engineer a disease resistant American chestnut using genetic material from a few stump sprouts that managed to produce seeds and a bit of DNA (as little as 3%) from Asian species that show resistance to the blight. The American Chestnut Foundation is at the forefront of this research with a mission …

…to restore the American chestnut tree to our eastern woodlands to benefit our environment, our wildlife, and our society. The American Chestnut Foundation is restoring a species – and in the process, creating a template for restoration of other tree and plant species.”

How’s that for a great Arbor Day message!

Woolly adelgids on the branch of a young hemlock.

Woolly adelgids on the branch of a young hemlock. Photo by Eric Jones

Another pest that is doing its best to wipe out whole a species of trees is the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). This past Sunday on a wonderful but rainy walk in the George Washington National Forest, Eric and I saw evidence of this destructive pest on a young hemlock. The hemlock woolly adelgid was also an accidental introduction from Asia and is devastating populations of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) throughout eastern North America. The insect damages the trees by feeding at the base of the needles causing them to desiccate and eventually drop off. Heavy infestations have been known to kill trees in as little as four years but healthy trees can sometimes survive an attack for a longer period of time. Luckily, there are products that the homeowner can use to help control hemlock woolly adelgids but sadly in our hemlock forests, these pests are causing the destruction of large numbers of these beautiful trees. Read more about the woolly adelgid.

As they have with the American chestnut, researchers have developed an adelgid-resistant hybrid by crossing the Carolina hemlock with an Asian hemlock which is resistant. While this is great progress – it does nothing to save the trees that are already infected!

Seen these hanging around?

Seen these hanging around? These purple structures are Emerald Ash Borer traps used to evaluate populations of the pest.

Another group of insects that causes widespread damage to established trees is the wood-boring insects including the emerald ash borer, the Asian long-horned beetle (both introduced from Asia), and a wide variety of the bark beetles.

The emerald ash borer, first reported in Michigan in 2002, has already killed millions of ash trees and is a potential threat to all the ash trees in North America.

The Asian long-horned beetle is one of the most destructive of the wood borers because it is not selective and attacks a wide variety of hardwood trees.

Bark beetles, like the spruce beetle, the mountain pine beetle, and the southern pine beetle, have killed millions of conifers in North American forests especially during severe outbreaks.

Bark beetles attacked this weakened pine and contributed to its death.

Bark beetles attacked this weakened pine and contributed to its death.

I remember when we were in Alaska several years ago seeing where the spruce beetle had killed entire forests of Sitka Spruce. Although bark beetles generally attack trees that are weak, dying, or already dead, the species listed above are particularly destructive because they will attack live, seemingly healthy trees.

For the homeowner, there are products that can be used to help control some of these pests. Horticultural oils can help control the woolly adelgid if they are sprayed at the correct times.

Some systemic insecticides may help control adelgids, emerald ash borers, Asian long-horned beetles, and pine borers. Bayer Advanced 12 Month Tree & Shrub Protect & Feed II and Bonide Annual Tree & Shrub Insect Control are products that can be mixed and poured at the base of the tree according to the label directions. These products are not available in all states. Always read and follow the label directions when using any pesticides. Read more about borers.

On this Arbor Day, The Nature Conservancy reminds us of some important tips to help protect our trees.

  • Keep your trees healthy and vigorous! Many destructive insect pests and diseases are attracted to trees that are stressed due to poor nutrition, drought conditions, and mechanical injury such as lawn mower or weed whacker nicks in the trunk.
  • When purchasing trees, purchase certified, pest-free nursery stock.
  • To avoid inadvertently spreading invasive pests or diseases, NEVER transport firewood when you travel, always obtain it locally!

So make a pledge this Arbor Day to pay attention to your existing trees and strive to keep them strong and healthy!

… and plant a tree!

Until next time – Happy Gardening!

Freeze damage on quince flowers

Well it’s happened once again!

The foliage on some of the daylilies was damaged

The foliage on some of the
daylilies was damaged

Unseasonably warm temperatures in March have pushed spring along in the mid-Atlantic states; only to have below freezing temperatures the first week of April provide a wake-up call that warm weather is not here to stay just yet.

Frost and freeze damage to tender new growth is evident throughout the Viette gardens and we are definitely not alone in seeing plant damage from this sudden cold snap.

The following was posted on our discussion board yesterday morning:

I live in Hollywood, MD (southern MD) and this past weekend we had freezing temps and my hydrangea leaves were damaged. I have 5 plants total, 3 chest-high and two others a little taller. They were looking wonderful with the leaves coming in nicely. They are 5-7 years old. This is the first time I have seen damage like this at the beginning of the season. They are calling for freezing temps again Sat. night. I am planning on buying and putting plant sheets on them to prevent further damage but I am wondering if it is too late. I am so disappointed. I was so looking forward to their blooms this summer. Anyone have experience with this with any tips or what I should expect as far as blooms, leaves coming back?

The dogwood flowers froze and turned brown.

The dogwood flowers froze
and turned brown.

I have had experience with this!

I even wrote a blog post about it at the time. The same thing happened in the spring of 2012 after a very warm March. In early April of that year the temperatures plummeted – just like this year. There was major damage to many shrubs (including my lacecap hydrangeas) and perennials that had broken dormancy earlier than normal due to the unusually warm March temperatures. The dogwood flowers were beginning to open and they got zapped as did the tender new growth on the boxwoods and on a few young native hollies growing in the woods.

New holly leaves turned black but tougher older leaves were fine

New holly leaves turned black but
tougher older leaves were fine

The new growth on the boxwood was severely damaged

New growth on the boxwood
was severely damaged

Boxwood and hollies can be trimmed back to remove any damaged foliage. As for the lacecap hydrangea, it’s best to wait and see. You don’t want to risk cutting off flower buds that might still be alive! Fortunately for me, I did not cut my damaged hydrangeas back that spring and they eventually recovered with lush new growth and they bloomed beautifully in the early summer – much to my surprise and delight!

 

This peony bud was zapped and some of the foliage was damaged a bit.

This peony bud was zapped and
some of the foliage was damaged.

This year it may be different, although it is too early to tell how extensive the damage may be. Walking around the gardens just now, it didn’t seem too bad. Some of the daylily foliage was nipped and a few of the peony buds froze but all-in-all, it wasn’t as bad as I had feared. That may change after this weekend, though.

Most of the hosta in the gardens are covered now so I wasn’t able to see if they had been damaged. They were covered before the worst of the cold.

Hosta covered in the gardens

Hosta covered in the gardens

At least most of the herbaceous perennials like daylilies and hosta can be trimmed to remove damaged foliage and they will respond with a flush of new growth. The cold damage will not usually affect the flowering of these summer blooming perennials.

Shrubs that bloom on new wood, such as butterfly bushes (Buddleia), Caryopteris, crape myrtle, and some hydrangea, can be pruned later in the spring to remove any damaged foliage or branches without affecting their flowering. In fact, we recommend waiting until the danger of cold weather has passed before doing any pruning on these shrubs.

As I walked around, I also noticed that many of the blossoms on the quince and the early blooming crabapple varieties had turned brown from the freeze.

Quince flowers were killed but the tougher foliage was not hurt.

Quince flowers were killed but
the tougher foliage was not hurt.

The pink quince flowers just melted out.

Most of flowers on the
pink quince turned brown.

It’s really too bad because they were just beginning to get really pretty!

The crabapple flowers and the tender new foliage were damaged

Crabapple flowers and the tender
new leaves were damaged

The buds that haven’t opened yet seem mostly sound.

That’s good news for the rest of the spring bloom but …

This cold snap is not over yet!

The nighttime temperatures are forecast to remain in the low 30’s for the rest of the week and by early Sunday morning they may drop into the upper teens in some of the colder areas. Brrrrrrr!

Hopefully the forecast is wrong but don’t count on it! Be sure to protect your plants tonight and keep them covered through Sunday morning.

Maybe this will be the last of the cold weather. Time will tell …

Until Next time – THINK SPRING!

Grass growing in the daylilies

Grass is nice.

Most homeowners crave a beautifully manicured, lush carpet of turfgrass. The sea of thick, green grass surrounding the Viette home is the envy of visitors who come to wander through the extensive gardens surrounding their home.

Grass has swallowed up these tall bearded iris

Grass has swallowed up these iris

Yes, grass is nice – when it is growing in your lawn. It’s not so nice when it invades your flower beds and mixes in with your perennials, shrubs, and trees.

What do you do then?

One of the worst of the grassy weeds is Bermudagrass; aka. wiregrass. This  warm season, perennial grass is often used as a turfgrass in southern zones because it is tough and durable and quite drought and heat resistant. The problem is that it is a very aggressive grass and can quickly spread into flowerbeds if it is not kept under control. Even if you don’t have a Bermudagrass lawn, this invasive grass can take hold and overrun your gardens.

Other perennial grasses that can infiltrate cultivated areas are Johnsongrass, quackgrass, and perennial ryegrass.

Annual grasses like crabgrass, barnyardgrass, and annual ryegrass can also be major headaches in flower gardens.

How do we get rid of it?

The problem is killing the grass but not the desirable ornamentals. Glyphosate (Roundup) can be used but it is non-selective and you have to be exceedingly careful not to get any spray on your plants. This is difficult to say the least and impossible in cases where the perennials are growing (or trying to grow) through a sea of invading grass.

Sethoxydim selectively targets grass but will not kill broadleaf weeds like this field pennycress.

Sethoxydim selectively targets
grass but will not kill broadleaf
weeds like this field pennycress.

Luckily, there is an answer – a selective herbicide containing the active ingredient sethoxydim. It can be found under the trade names Poast, Segment, and Vantage, among others. Bonide Grass Beater contains sethoxydim and can be found in most full service garden stores.

When applied according to the label instructions, sethoxydim can be sprayed over the top of most non-grass perennials, shrubs, and trees without harming them. It does not kill broadleaf weeds or sedges (sedges are not grasses), but it is ideal for post-emergent control of both annual and perennial grass weeds in your flowerbeds.

An example of how it works …

At Viette’s, we have had some serious problems with grass taking over a few large sections in several of our daylily fields. In the past, we have used glyphosate to spot treat between the rows but this year, grass came up right in the middle of the rows completely surrounding the clumps of daylilies. It was pretty bad! We had to do something or the grass would crowd out the plants.

Grass growing throughout a row of daylilies

Grass growing throughout a row of daylilies

Our field manager and his helper used Segment (13% sethoxydim) to spray these patches of grass in the fields. Because daylilies are listed as tolerant to sethoxydim, they were able to spray right over the daylilies without harming them. This is ideal for post-emergent grass control in our fields.

Three days after spraying, the grass begins to burn back.

Three days after spraying,
the grass begins to burn back.

Three days later

Three days later

The label on this herbicide is extensive and it is important to read and follow the instructions. The label includes a long list of tolerant species of perennials, shrubs, and trees. It can even be used in the vegetable garden when applied according to the label directions.

The results were pretty striking …

14 days later. The green patch on the right was skipped. Since there are no daylilies in this area, glyphosate will be used to kill this grass.

Fourteen days later. The green patch on the right was skipped.
Since there are no daylilies in this area, glyphosate will be used
to kill this grass. The daylilies have grown well – no ill effects!

After 14 days. You can see where Bo edged this 5-row bed. The results are evident!

After 14 days in a different field. You can definitely see where
Bo edged this 5-row bed. The results are evident!

Pretty good results!

It did a pretty good job eliminating the grass!

The daylilies look healthy and are growing well. Luckily I can’t say as much for the grass! Now they can go back through all the fields and spot treat the broadleaf weeds with glyphosate. The fields should be in pretty good shape for the rest of the season!

Until next time – Happy Gardening!

Spring is Near!

Crocus are blooming

Male spring peeper calling; photo credit Jack Ray

Male spring peeper calling;
photo credit: Jack Ray

The other night as I drove past a small pond on my way home, the chirping of the spring peepers was deafening! But I was happy to hear them!

Spring is near!

The peepers are singing, the crocus are blooming, and the daffodils are beginning to open! It seems that spring is slowly creeping into the Shenandoah Valley.

It has definitely been an odd winter this year with some very warm stretches mixed in with a few very cold periods. Some perennials have been fooled and many broke into growth earlier than they should have.

In late January, we received the following question via our Discussion Board:

Hosta damaged from a late freeze can be cut back

Even hosta damaged from a
late freeze can be cut back

I am in Toano, Virginia. We had an unusually warm start to our winter. As a result, my blueberries bloomed, my peonies started to come up as did my daylilies. Some of my daylilies never really went dormant. I covered the daylilies and peonies with pine straw but the daylilies grew almost 6 inches. Now the leaves are burned and chewed. Can I cut the leaves back to the ground now or [should I] leave them alone?

This type of plant damage is not unusual but it normally occurs in the spring when a late freeze damages the tender new spring growth. It’s a bit crazy that there was this much growth during a warm spell in the winter but, as we all know, it was a crazy winter!

Freeze damage on daylilies resembles insect damage.

Freeze damage on daylilies
resembles insect damage.

Here is my response to the question:

Yes it would be fine to cut the damaged foliage of your daylilies back. You can cut them right to the ground. The “chewed” leaves are probably a result of freeze damage rather than damage from a chewing pest. Re-cover the plants with the pine straw after you trim them back.

Pine straw makes a great, long-lasting mulch and the daylilies and peonies will grow right up through it.

Cut Liriope back before growth begins in spring

Cut Liriope back before
growth begins in spring

March is also a good time to trim back the old foliage of some of your evergreen perennials – especially Liriope, Helleborus, and Epimedium. It is so much easier if you do this before the new foliage begins to grow. You can pretty much just gather up the old leaves in a bunch and cut the stems close to the ground. Just be careful that there is no new growth in the way of your shears before you snip!

The old fronds of evergreen ferns should also be cut back now. Last weekend, I trimmed the old foliage from my Dryopteris, cinnamon ferns, ostrich ferns, and Christmas ferns.

Trim back old fern fronds before new growth occurs

Trim back old fern fronds
before new growth occurs

The crowns of these ferns were still firm and tight but the fiddleheads will soon begin to pop up and unfurl. After that, it will become harder to clean up the old foliage without snapping off the tender new fronds.

Ornamental grasses should also be cut back now. This is another group of perennials that is important to cut back before new growth begins. One of the easiest ways to do this is to cinch the old foliage together with twine or a bungee cord and use hedge shears to cut the clump back near the ground. Since it’s already tied up, you can just carry the whole bundle out of the garden. Nice and neat!
Here is a video showing just how easy this method is.

Oh and don’t forget!

Mark pruned this overgrown lilac back to the ground.

Mark pruned this overgrown
lilac back to the ground.

If you have some shrubs that have outgrown their space, now is the time to do any heavy rejuvenation pruning. This can be done with boxwood, holly, yew, rhododendron, azalea, and any others that have dormant buds in the bare wood. Even spring bloomers like overgrown lilac and forsythia can be pruned back hard to rejuvenate them and improve blooming, in addition to getting them back to a manageable size.

Normally, spring blooming shrubs are pruned after they finish blooming but severe pruning, where they are cut back hard (sometimes to the ground) is best done while they are still dormant in late winter or early spring. Of course you will sacrifice the bloom for the season but they should bounce back and bloom even better next spring or maybe the spring after.

Winter is on the way out! It’s time to get back in the garden!

Until next time – Happy Spring!

Emerging bean seedlings

Now that you have your seeds and you’ve decided which seeds to start indoors and which to direct sow, the question becomes, when do you plant?

Determining when to start seeds for transplants

Tomato seedlings growing under lights

Tomato seedlings growing under lights

Starting your seeds indoors at the right time will give you nice, healthy, transplant-size plants at the ideal planting time in the spring. The correct timing depends upon where you live (what your average last frost date is) and the type of vegetables you grow.

Cool season crops like broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower are tolerant of colder temperatures and transplants can be placed out in the garden earlier than warm season crops.

In general, cool season crops for transplanting should be grown indoors for about 4 to 6 weeks, but they can be planted outdoors 2 or 3 weeks before the last frost date. For some, these crops can be started pretty soon!

Peppers grow slowly and should be grown for about 8 weeks before transplanting

Peppers grow slowly and should
be grown for about 8 weeks
before transplanting outside

Warm season crops should be grown indoors for about 6-8 weeks but they should not be transplanted into the garden until a week or two after the last frost date. It doesn’t do any good to plant warm season crops like tomatoes, peppers, and eggplant early because, if the soil and/or air temperature is not optimal, the plants will just sit and not grow much until it gets warmer. These plants need warm temperatures to spur growth.

Here is a link to calculate (by zip code) your average date of last 32°F temperature (50% column on the chart).

Johnny’s Selected Seeds has developed a chart that will give you a date range for starting your seeds indoors and also when it is best to transplant your seedlings outdoors. All you need to do is input your spring frost-free date. You might want to use a more conservative date for this – maybe the 20% column rather than the 50% (average date) column.

When to sow seeds directly in the garden

Root crops like carrots do best when direct-sown in the garden

Root crops like carrots do best
when direct-sown in the garden

The timing for direct seeding into the garden is really more dependent on the spring weather conditions and the temperature of the soil. In general, it is safe to sow seeds directly in the garden after the last frost date but most vegetable seeds have specific soil temperature requirements for germination. It’s not the air temperature but the soil temperature that is critical in seed germination. Seeds begin growing when the soil reaches the optimal temperature for germination.

Seeds can rot in the ground before they germinate if planted in soil that is too cold – a waste of time and money!

Peas can be planted early since they are more cold hardy plants. Pea seeds can germinate in soils as cool as 40°F; whereas cucumbers germinate best when the soil temperature is 70°F and will not germinate at all if the soil temperature is below 50°F.

As you can see, it can be really helpful to have a soil thermometer!

Your seed packets will often provide information on the optimal soil temps for germination and this is the best guideline to follow. Many seed websites, like Johnny’s Selected Seeds, provide detailed growing information including when to direct seed each variety.

A ball of soil too wet to break apart when tapped. Garden needs to dry out more!

A ball of soil too wet to break
apart when tapped. This garden
needs to dry out more!

A word of caution!
Never work in the soil when it is wet – even if the soil temperature is perfect for planting. Digging or tilling in wet soil (or very dry soil) can destroy its structure by compressing the soil particles tightly together so that the pore spaces that hold air and water are lost. This hinders aeration and drainage and can quickly turn good soil into something almost as hard and crusty as concrete.

It is very important to make sure your soil is dry enough before you get in there and tromp around in the garden. You can test this by taking a handful of soil and squeezing it into a ball. If the ball breaks apart when you tap it, the soil is dry enough to be worked.

Using Phenology to determine planting time

Rather than going by a certain calendar date, some gardeners use phenology to determine the optimal time for various gardening chores, such as planting, pruning, weed control, etc. Phenology is the study of the timing of certain events in nature (for instance, the swelling of buds or the appearance of flowers) in relation to weather and climate.

For generations, many farmers and gardeners have relied on these observations of nature rather than the calendar. Plants and animals don’t know when the first day of spring is or what the average date of last frost is but they do respond to changes in local temperature and precipitation and their responses can give us a pretty good idea of how spring is progressing (or not) in any particular year.

The flowering sequence of forsythia provides a timeline for spring gardening chores

The flowering of forsythia
provides a timeline for many
spring gardening chores

“Indicator plants” are commonly used as a guide for planting and other spring chores.

Lilacs have proven to be a good indicator plant but one of Andre’s favorites is forsythia.

He says …

  • When the forsythia are in bloom, it’s time to direct sow cool-season crops in the vegetable garden. These include: spinach, lettuce, peas, carrots, chard, beets, and radishes.
  • When the forsythia are in full bloom, it is time to prune your hybrid tea roses, floribunda roses, and grandiflora roses.
  • Before the forsythia petals drop, apply a pre-emergent herbicide to control crabgrass in your lawn.
  • When the forsythia petals begin to drop, cut your Buddleia (butterfly bushes) back to about 12″-18″ from the ground. Use this same timing for cutting back your Caryopteris and Vitex.
  • When the forsythia have finished blooming, you can safely plant potatoes.
Lilac are another good indicator plant

Lilacs are another good indicator plant

Here are some others:

  • When daffodils bloom, plant spinach, beets, onions, and kale
  • When apple blossoms drop their petals or the lilacs are in full bloom, plant bush beans, pole beans, cucumbers, squash, and corn
  • When peonies flower, transplant tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and melons

Well, there you have it; a few good tips on when to do some planting!

Until next time –

Happy Planting!

Nothing better than fresh, home-grown vegetables.

The time has come to look through your favorite seed catalogs and make some decisions about what you want to grow this season!

Rattlesnake beans

Usually, I can only find my favorite
rattlesnake pole beans in catalogs!

These catalogs (and their websites) offer a much wider selection of vegetable seeds than you will see in most garden stores. So if you want some varieties that are a little out of the ordinary, ordering from a seed company is the way to go.

Of course you have your old tried and true favorites but every year there will be some exciting new varieties that are hard to resist and in most cases, you will only be able to find these new and different vegetable seeds in your catalogs or online.

Don’t procrastinate!

Order your seeds soon so they arrive in time to start some of your crops indoors to get a jump on the season.

Transplants vs. Direct-sowing

Confused about which seeds to start indoors and which are best to sow directly in the garden? There are advantages and disadvantages to each of these practices and the answer really depends upon the individual crop.

  • Plastic lids cover each flat.

    Indoors, you can control lighting,
    humidity, and temperature for
    optimal germination and growth

    Starting seeds indoors allows you to have more control over the growing environment.

  • Certain pest and disease problems that plague young seedlings in the garden are avoided when plants are started indoors.
  • Pre-emergence weed preventers can usually be used in areas of the garden where transplants will be set out but not where you plan on planting seeds. Read the label before using a pre-emergent to be sure it is safe for your transplants!
  • Replacing early season crops in the garden with started plants allows you to produce another crop quickly.
  • Transplants must be hardened off before planting in the garden. Direct-sowing avoids this.

Certain crops perform better when set out as transplants while others do better when the seed is planted directly into the garden soil.

Here are some general guidelines:

Eggplant seedlings grow under lights until it is safe to plant in the garden

Eggplant seedlings grow under lights
until it is safe to plant in the garden

  • Crops with rapid top growth and slow root growth, like corn, beans, squash, and melons, don’t transplant well and are generally more successful when seeded directly in the garden.
  • Crops with rapid root growth and slower top growth, such as tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, and celery, will do better when planted as transplants.
  • Root crops are more successful when they are direct-sown as they tend to be more flavorful, tender, and straight if they grow at a steady rate from germination to harvest. Transplanting interrupts this steady growth.

Cool-season veggies to start indoors:

Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, Kale, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts

Cucumber seedlings transplanted and mulched in the garden

Cucumber seedlings transplanted
and mulched in the garden

Cool-season veggies to direct-sow:

Peas, radishes, turnips, parsnips, beets, spinach, carrots, potatoes (from seed potatoes)

Warm-season veggies to start indoors:

Tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, celery

Warm-season veggies to direct-sow:

Beans, corn, okra, cucumbers*, squash, melons, pumpkins

* – Cucumbers can also be started indoors to get a jump on the season.

Next time …

When to start your seeds; both indoors and direct seeding in the garden

Until then – Happy Gardening and get those seeds on order!

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 1,152 other followers

%d bloggers like this: